What should you know about diabetes?

diabetes: symptoms, types, diagnosis, complications, treatment

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus broadly known as diabetes is a metabolic nutritional disorder characterized by abnormally elevated levels of glucose in blood and urine.


Insulin is the hormone produced by the pancreas and control sugar in our body and also helps the cells to use sugar properly. Diabetes results from a complete or relative lack of insulin which leads to metabolism abnormality of carbohydrate as well as fat and protein.



Symptoms of diabetes:

Diabetes word derived from Greek which means ‘to siphon to pass through’ and Mellitus is a Latin word means ‘honey’. So this two-word meaning is characterized by two main symptoms- copious urination and glucose in urine.


Main symptoms include:


  • Increased hunger also known as polyphagia,
  • Increased thirst also known as polydipsia,
  • Increased or frequent urination is also known as polyuria,
  • Weight loss even eating more,
  • Gets easily tired both mentally and physically,
  • Frequent infections such as skin, oral or vaginal infections in women,
  • Loss of libido more in men, etc.



Types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes:

This type is also known as juvenile diabetes and can be seen from childhood or adolescence. The main cause is unknown but the immune system attacks cells of the pancreas which produces insulin. Genetic and environmental factors may also play a role in the cause of Type 1 Diabetes.



As the age increase and predisposed person first may appear as prediabetes, where that person slowly becomes resistant to the action of insulin on our body and pancreas also produces less insulin. As time passes prediabetes mostly converted to type 2 diabetes patients if proper care is not taken.


Type 2 diabetes:

Mostly developed in persons over the age of 40 where very less insulin is produced from the pancreas. there are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as obesity, heredity, environmental factors, etc.


Gestational diabetes:

About 10% of the pregnant lady may get affected by high sugar levels during pregnancy known as gestational diabetes. it usually disappears after the birth of a baby. patients of gestational diabetes mostly managed by proper diet and exercise but some may also need insulin injections or other medications.



What is normal range for blood sugar?

Blood sugar tests are measured randomly, fasting, or postprandial. Random blood sugar test is measured at any time of the day while fasting blood sugar test is performed at least 8 to 10 hours of fast. And postprandial blood sugar test is taken after 2 hours of the meal.


Estimated average glucose:

Normal blood sugar level for non-diabetes is between 70 to 120 mg/dl when fasting and for postprandial blood sugar level is 80 to 130 mg/dl.


Target blood sugar level for type 2 diabetes should be within or around 140 mg/dl when the person is on anti-diabetic medication.



How to diagnosis diabetes?

We have discussed the normal range of blood sugar for non-diabetes or normal people. let’s see diagnosis by blood sugar level.


If blood sugar level after 2 hours of meal that is postprandial is between 140 to 199 mg/dl is diagnosed as prediabetes. prediabetes people usually do not need antidiabetic medication. They can control the sugar level below 140 mg/dl by proper healthy food and diet regulation, and exercise.


When blood sugar level after 2 hours of the meal is above 200 mg/dl is diagnosed as diabetes. A person who is diagnosed with diabetes mostly needs antidiabetic medications along with a strict diet plan and exercise to control sugar level within the normal limit.


Hemoglobin A1c:

Glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c is also one of the test performed for the diagnosis of diabetes. This test is helpful in indicating an average blood glucose level for a range of 2 to 3 months.


HbA1c test indication:

Normal: less than 1%

Prediabetes: 6% to 6.4%

Diabetes: more than 6.5%



What are the complications of diabetes?

If the blood sugar level is high or uncontrolled for a long time it may damage many organs of the body developing as diabetic complications. Some of the complications are…


Nerve damage causing numbness of limbs, generalized weakness, etc.

Kidney diseases

Retinal diseases

Heart disease

Stroke, etc.

The above list of complications looks scary but all the risks can be minimized if a person is able to control blood sugar level within normal limits for a long period. so sincerity in controlling sugar level is a must to live a healthy life in the long run.



Treatment of diabetes:

Treatment is aimed to control blood sugar or glucose level and reducing complications for a healthy life. Line of treatment may be…


Antidiabetic medicine should be started under the care of an expert doctor


Exercise and yoga

Please also, read the articles: 6 home food remedies to control diabetes 

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